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catheterization is a test
to check your heart. This test uses a thin, flexible tube called a catheter that is inserted into the heart through blood vessels. This test can include a coronary angiogram, which checks the coronary arteries.
A cardiac catheterization can check blood flow in
the coronary arteries. It also checks the function of different parts of the heart, such as the heart chambers, the heart valves, and the wall of the heart. In
children, this test is used to check for heart problems that have been present
since birth (congenital heart defect).
A coronary angiogram is used to find out if you have disease in your coronary
arteries (atherosclerosis). If you have this condition, the
test can find fat and calcium deposits (plaque) that are narrowing your coronary arteries.
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is similar to a coronary angiogram. But it is used to open up a narrowed coronary artery with special tools. PCI is also called angioplasty.
Results from a coronary angiogram help to find out if certain treatments are likely to work for you. This includes treatment with
medicines, bypass surgery, or percutaneous coronary intervention
(PCI), such as
For help deciding about having this test for coronary artery disease, see Heart Disease: Should I Have an Angiogram?
Health Tools help you make wise health decisions or take action to improve your health.
Cardiac catheterization is done to:
A coronary angiogram is done to:
Tell your doctor if you:
Talk to your doctor about any concerns you have regarding
the need for the test, its risks, how it will be done, or what the results will
mean. To help you understand the importance of this test, fill out the
medical test information form(What is a PDF document?).
Arrange for someone to take you home
after the test. You may not have to stay in the hospital overnight.
Do not eat or drink (except for a small amount of water) for 6 to 12
hours before the test.
Take your medicines as directed by your doctor. You might stop taking certain medicines before your test and start taking them again after your test.
Before the test,
remove any necklaces, bracelets, rings, or other jewelry. You should also
remove nail polish from your fingernails and toenails.
Be sure to
empty your bladder completely just before the test.
This test is done in the cardiac catheterization laboratory, or "cath lab". A
cardiologist will do the test.
You will be asked to lie on a flat
table under a large X-ray machine. Several small pads or patches will
be attached to your legs and arms. These are called electrodes. They are
connected to an
electrocardiogram (EKG, ECG) machine. The machine records the electrical activity of your heart during the test.
device called a
pulse oximeter may be clipped to your finger. It measures oxygen levels in your
blood. It also monitors your pulse.
intravenous (IV) needle will be put into a vein in one of your
arms. It is used for giving you fluids or medicine during the procedure. You will get
medicine to help you relax (sedative) through the IV line. You may
be awake during the test. But even if you are awake, the sedative may make
you so sleepy that you may not remember much about the test.
The area where the catheter is put in will be shaved and cleaned before the test.
Sterile towels will be draped over you, but not over the area where
the catheter will be put in. There are a few options for where the catheter may be inserted. If you are having a cardiac catheterization to check the right side of your heart, the catheter is put into a vein in your neck or groin. If the test will check the left side of your heart or your coronary arteries, the catheter is put into an artery in your groin or arm.
shot of local anesthetic will be given at the
insertion site. A blood vessel is punctured by a special needle or exposed by
making a small cut in the skin so that the catheter can be passed into the
blood vessel. The catheter is slowly moved through the blood vessel into
your body. The catheter tip is moved into different positions in the heart's
vessels and chambers while the doctor watches its progress on the imaging
screen. Pressures inside the heart chambers can be measured. Blood and heart
tissue samples may also be removed through the catheter, if needed.
You may be asked to hold your breath
or move your head slightly. This helps to give clear views of the heart and its blood
During an angiogram, a small amount of dye (contrast material) will be
injected through the catheter into your coronary
arteries. Pictures show the arteries as the dye moves through them. You may be
asked to cough to help clear the contrast material out of your heart. Or you may be asked to take a deep breath and hold it.
Be sure to lie as still as
you can, since moving can make the images blurry or hard to read. A
health professional will help you stay comfortable and still. Be careful not to touch the sheets or the area where the catheter is inserted. If you do, you may contaminate the clean areas and increase the risk of
may be given nitroglycerin. This helps open up your coronary arteries. Or you may
get a shot of a medicine that causes the coronary arteries to
You may be asked to breathe into a special mouthpiece. This helps to measure the flow of oxygen in your blood.
The test takes about 30 minutes. But you need time to get ready for it and time to recover. It can take up to 6 hours total. How long the test takes is not a sign of how serious your condition is.
The catheter will be removed from
the site where it goes into your skin. To prevent bleeding, the site may need to be closed using
pressure, stitches, or a special seal. For example, if the catheter was
put in your wrist or groin, firm pressure will be applied to that area for
about 10 minutes to stop the bleeding. Then a bandage or a compression device may be placed on your groin or wrist at the catheter insertion site. If the catheter was put in your elbow, a few stitches will
be used to close the wound.
After the test, you will be taken to an observation room. A health
professional will periodically monitor your heart rate, blood pressure, and
temperature. You will also be checked for signs of bleeding at the insertion site. The pulse,
color, and temperature of the arm or leg in which the catheter was put in
will also be checked periodically. You may be given medicine for pain.
If the catheter was put in
your groin, you may have to lie in bed with your leg extended for several hours
(such as 1 to 4 hours). This depends on what procedure was used and your medical
condition. After that, you can move around freely.
If the catheter was put in your arm, you may be able to sit up and get out of bed right away. But you will need to keep your arm still for at least 1 hour.
A child who has had cardiac
catheterization may need to be held by a parent for several hours after the
test. This is to prevent the child from moving his or her leg.
drink plenty of liquids for several hours after the test. This will prevent
dehydration. And it will help flush the contrast material out
of your body.
Depending on the results of the test, you may be
sent home either after being observed for a short time (such as 6 hours) or the
next day. If you got any stitches in your arm, they may be removed in 5 to
7 days. Do not do strenuous exercise or lift anything heavy until your doctor says it is okay. This may be for a day or two.
If you are breastfeeding and had an angiogram in which dye was put into your body, use formula for 2 days after this test. Discard the breast milk you pump for 2 days after the test.
You will feel a sharp sting when you get the shot of
local anesthetic to numb your skin where the catheter goes in. When the catheter is put in, you may feel a brief, sharp pain.
movement of the catheter through your blood vessel may cause a feeling of
pressure, but it is not usually painful. People often have
skipped heartbeats for a few seconds when the catheter touches the walls of the
If a dye (contrast material) is injected, you may feel warm
and flushed. You may have a metallic taste in your mouth. Some people feel sick to
their stomach or have a headache. You also may feel nauseated or lightheaded,
have chest pain or pressure, irregular heartbeats, an urge to cough, mild itching, or
hives from the contrast material. If you have any of
these symptoms, tell your doctor how you feel.
temperature in the cath lab is kept cool. This keeps the equipment from overheating. For many people, the hardest part of the test is having
to lie still for an hour or more on the hard table. You may feel some stiffness
You may have some soreness and bruising at the
insertion site. This is temporary and should go away within 2 weeks. It is
normal for the site to feel tender for about a week.
Call your doctor
right away if:
Most people do not have problems during or after an angiogram.
Heart attack and stroke happen rarely, but they can be life-threatening. They are more likely
to occur in older people or people who have health conditions that raise the risk of heart attack or stroke.
Other problems that can happen during or soon after an angiogram include:
Certain health conditions can raise your risk of having problems after angioplasty. Conditions that can raise the risk of death from the procedure include heart failure, heart valve problems, and chronic kidney disease. The risk of heart attack may be higher if you have heart disease in the left main coronary artery.
Having these conditions doesn't mean that you will have a problem from the procedure. You and your doctor can talk about whether your risk of a problem is higher than average.
There is always a slight risk of damage to cells or tissues
from being exposed to any radiation. This includes the low levels of X-ray used for
Some evidence suggests that the radiation used in this test could raise the risk of getting cancer later in life. But the risk is believed to be about the same as from many everyday activities and medical
procedures. The risk of damage from the X-rays is usually very low
compared with the possible benefits of the test.
Cardiac catheterization is a test to
check your heart and coronary arteries.
Test results will be
reviewed by a
cardiologist. The results will be available after the
test. Your doctor will be able to talk to you about some of the results
Results will include whether:
Many conditions can affect the results of a cardiac
catheterization. Your doctor will discuss any significant abnormal results with
you in relation to your symptoms and past health.
You may not be able to have the test, or the results may not be helpful, if:
Other Works Consulted
Balaji NR, Shah PB (2012). Radial artery catheterization. Circulation, 124(16): e407-e408.
Bangalore S, Bhatt DL (2011). Right heart catheterization, coronary angiography, and percutaneous coronary intervention. Circulation, 124(17): e428-e433.
Bashore TM, et al. (2012). 2012 ACCF/SCAI Expert consensus document on cardiac catheterization laboratory standards update. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 59(24): 2221-2305.
Chernecky CC, Berger BJ (2013). Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures, 6th ed. St. Louis: Saunders.
Glowny MG, Resnic FS (2012). What to expect during cardiac catheterization. Circulation, 125(7): e363-e364.
ByHealthwise StaffPrimary Medical ReviewerRakesh K. Pai, MD, FACC - Cardiology, ElectrophysiologyE. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal MedicineMartin J. Gabica, MD - Family MedicineAdam Husney, MD - Family MedicineSpecialist Medical ReviewerJohn A. McPherson, MD, FACC, FSCAI - CardiologyMichael P. Pignone, MD, MPH, FACP - Internal Medicine
Current as ofJanuary 12, 2018
Current as of:
January 12, 2018
Rakesh K. Pai, MD, FACC - Cardiology, Electrophysiology
& E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine & Martin J. Gabica, MD - Family Medicine & Adam Husney, MD - Family Medicine & John A. McPherson, MD, FACC, FSCAI - Cardiology & Michael P. Pignone, MD, MPH, FACP - Internal Medicine
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